ISRO Releases Pictures of Impact Craters on Moon

The Indian Space Agency has released a fresh set of images of impact craters on the lunar surface taken by its Chandrayaan-2 orbiter.

The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) released a picture on its Twitter handle on Tuesday, saying the images were taken by dual-frequency-synthetic aperture radar (DF-SAR) on its Chandrayaan-2 orbiter.

According to ISRO, the moon has been continuously bombarded by meteorites, asteroids and comets since its formation. This has resulted in innumerable impact craters that form the most distinctive geographical features on its surface.

Impact craters are nearly circular depressions on the lunar surface, ranging from small, simple, bowl-shaped depressions to large, complex, multi-ring impact basins.

ISRO stated, “Unlike volcanic craters, which result in eruptions or internal collapse, impact craters are generally lower in elevation than rims and the surrounding area.”

The study of the nature, size, distribution, and composition of impact craters and related Ezeka (materials that are thrown out on an impact) features reveals valuable information about the origin and evolution of craters.

According to ISRO, weathering processes result in many crater physical features and ejecta material being covered with layers of regolith (sand, dust, loose rock and clay on a hard surface), making some of them undesirable using optical cameras .

The Indian Space Agency said, SAR is a powerful remote sensing instrument for studying planetary surfaces and subsurface due to the ability of radar signals to penetrate the surface. It is also sensitive to the roughness, structure and composition of the surface material and buried terrain.

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Previous lunar-orbiting SAR systems, such as the S-band hybrid-polymetric SAR on ISRO’s Chandrayaan-1 and the S&X-band hybrid-polymetric SAR on NASA’s LRO, have yielded valuable data on the scattering characterization of ejecta materials of lunar impact cratersers. be provided. , ISRO said.

However, L&S band SAR on Chandrayaan-2 to produce maximum details about the morphology and ejector content of impact craters due to the capability of imaging with high resolution (2 – 75 m oblique range) and full-polymeter diameter. Is designed for Also combined angles in S and L-band with wide coverage angles (9.5 ° – 35 °).

In addition, greater depth of penetration of the L-band (3–5 m) enables one to examine buried terrain at greater depth.

ISRO stated that the L&S band SAR payload helps to identify and quantitatively assess lunar polar water-ice in permanently shaded areas.

ISRO stated, “The DF-SAR of the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter is operated in full-polymetry mode, which is a gold standard in the SAR polymeter, and is the first built by any planetary SAR instrument.”

The space agency said that the image presents many interesting facts originating in the original craters of various South Ages and the lunar south polar region.

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ISRO stated, “The yellowness around the crater rims in the image reflects the ejected areas. The distribution of the Ezeka fields, whether it is uniformly distributed in all directions or oriented towards a particular side of a crater, reflects the nature of the effect. Indicates, ”ISRO reported.

According to ISRO, the image shows the vertical effect and skew effect at the top-right and bottom-right, respectively.

Similarly, the roughness of Ezeka material associated with impact craters indicates that a crater has undergone a degree of weathering.

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Three similarly sized craters along a line at the lower-right of the image show examples of a young crater, a moderately experienced crater, and an older crater crater.

Many eviction regions seen in the image do not appear in the same area in the high-resolution optical image, indicating that ejecta regions are buried under regolith layers.

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